In this task six phrases have been removed from the text and placed at the bottom. An extra phrase has been included. You must decide which phrase goes into which gap and write the letter in the box below the sentences.

Diamonds are Forever

Diamonds are not just a girl’s best friend, nor only for romantic couples, but monarchs, jewellers, dealers and anyone who can afford them.

We all know what a diamond is, but giving a more scientific explanation is a little

harder. It is solid, pure carbon in crystal form and, as such, is one of the hardest natural substances on Earth. 1…, the majority of them are put to industrial use. Because of the substance’s immense hardness, it is used in cutting, drilling and polishing. They are put to work in mining and heavy industry, but also used to cut and polish other diamonds.

It is surprising to find they also play a role in high-end vinyl record players, dentistry and minute nanodiamonds that assist chemotherapy drugs to be released more effectively. They are even replacing silicon in computers, as they can withstand five times more heat and cool down quicker.

Diamonds can be billions of years old, but their use by mankind is more recent. It is thought that the first mining and sourcing of diamonds occurred in India around three thousand years ago along the banks of the rivers 2… the first to adorn themselves with them. They became present across the royal houses of Europe during the second millennium AD, since these were largely the only people who could afford them, but that didn’t stop them coming up with devious plans or resorting to sheer violence to purloin them. 3… ,the wife of Louis XVI of France, eventually losing her head.

A Cut Above the Rest

How do you know if a diamond is industrial strength or fit for a king or queen? 4…


To bring out the shine, pattern and sheer beauty of a diamond, it has to be cut, that is, cut to shape and polished. During this process, it can lose up to fifty percent of its volume, so the cutter needs a steady hand and nerves of steel. The proportions in terms of width and depth and what is called table size (the flat surface on the top) are also extremely important.


Diamonds come in a range of tones from colourless through to light-yellow or brown. These are divided into five grades:

  • D-F colourless
  • G-J near colourless
  • K-M slightly tinted
  • N-R very light coloured
  • S-Z light yellow or brown

5… ,although the differences may not be easily visible without magnification and expertise.


Total clarity would be a perfect diamond, but this is very rare indeed. Typically, most diamonds contain some type of flaw, in the form of nicks or flecks of minerals trapped inside. A few extremely rare diamonds are naturally coloured (as opposed to shop-coloured); consequently, their price can be astronomical.


Carat describes the weight of a diamond, which in metric is defined as 200 milligrams. This is divided into a further 100 points, meaning the weight description is extremely accurate. The average carat size of an 6… At the other end of the scale, the largest rough gem-quality diamond was the Cullinan Diamond, discovered in South Africa in 1905 and named after the mine’s chairman Thomas Cullinan. Weighing a staggering 3,106.75 carats, it was cut into nine pieces.

The ultimate value of a diamond is determined by the combination of the 4Cs rather than size alone.


Possibly you associate diamond mining with South Africa and the novels of Wilbur Smith. It is true that it is one of the major producers. The world’s deepest diamond mine is Jwaneng mine in the Naledi River Valley in Southern Botswana, at a depth of 625 metres. Eighty percent of diamond production goes to industrial use.

Fragment tekstu pochodzi ze specjalnego wydania Business English Magazine Finance nr 12/2020.

A. The Romans and Greeks believed that diamonds were the tears of the gods,

B. The clearer the diamond, the higher its value,

C. Krishna and Godavari, and that Indian monarchs were

D. While we associate diamonds with jewellery,

E. engagement ring in the United States is 1 – 1.2 carats.

F. There are factors that determine a diamond’s value known as the four Cs. These are:

G. Diamonds contributed to Marie Antoinette,


Diamonds are Forever

Complete gaps 1-6 with phrases A-G .There is one extra phrase.

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The average score is 22%